Explain the Second Great Awakening and the subsequent reform movements it created.

The Second Great Awakening was a revival movement that led to the spread of several Protestant denominations. It stressed that God's kingdom should be created on Earth and that all people could earn salvation. This sparked several reform movements, notably the temperance, women's rights, and abolitionist movements.

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From the end of the eighteenth century through the mid-nineteenth century, a massive Protestant revival movement swept across the United States (as well as parts of Europe, to a lesser extent). This soon became known as the Second Great Awakening. Methodist and Baptist preachers in particular held open services in cities and rural communities alike. They stressed that salvation was available to anyone through conversion and repentance.

There were numerous reform movements in the United States at this time. Not all were linked to the Second Great Awakening. However, there were some elements of this religious revival that spurred on and added to these reform movements. A major element of these religious revivals was that people should strive to create heaven on Earth. Since they argued that anyone was capable of salvation, regardless of race or gender, revivalists sought to reform American society.

Revivalists took an active role in the abolitionist movement. According to the beliefs of the Second Great Awakening, people of all races were equal in the eyes of God. Many abolitionist leaders were also revivalist preachers. The women's rights movement was also born out of this time. Women were not entitled to nearly as many rights and privileges as men in American society. Like slavery, this second-class status of women was highly antithetical to the revivalist notion that all people have equal worth.

The temperance movement was also a result of the Second Great Awakening. Since revivalists wanted to create a heaven on Earth, they sought to eliminate or reduce the consumption of alcohol. They argued that reducing alcohol consumption would lead to more stable families. They also believed that alcohol came between a person and their relationship with God.

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