Explain the main theme in Sonnet 130.

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The main idea in most of Shakespeare's sonnets is presented by the final two lines, the rhyming couplet. Many sonnets take love as its subject and use hyperbole or metaphors that compare a woman's beauty to objects in unrealistic ways. Here, the speaker refuses to do that. Rather than say that his lover's eyes shine like the sun, he says, "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun" (line 1). Her lips are not red as coral, her skin is not white as snow. She does not have roses in her cheeks or heavenly breath. Although he "love[s] to hear her speak," he knows "That music hath a far more pleasing sound" (lines 9, 10). He cannot compare her, faithfully, to a goddess; she does not float. But in the final lines, the speaker says,

And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.

In other words, he says, his love is special and unique, and he does not need to make false, flattering comparisons in order to retain her love or prove that his love is strong. The larger implication, I think, is that no real love needs to boast of itself in this way.

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I assume that you are talking about Shakespeare's Sonnet 130.  I will answer based on that, and I will move the question to that group.

The main theme of this is that his love for his "mistress" does not depend on telling lies about her or using hyperbole to describe her.  His love for her is more real than a love that needs to do those things.

Throughout the poem, the speaker uses fairly typical hyperbole that you see in love poems but then denies that those apply to his mistress (her eyes are nothing like the sun, for example).  By doing this, he is saying that his love is more pure than the kind of love that must be expressed in lies.

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