Explain the different circumstances that led to the creation of the Church of England and Calvinism.

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In the 1530s, King Henry VIII wanted to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon because she had thus far only birthed a daughter and because he became interested in Anne Boleyn. Knowing that divorce was out of the question, as both he and Catherine were Roman Catholic and the...

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In the 1530s, King Henry VIII wanted to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon because she had thus far only birthed a daughter and because he became interested in Anne Boleyn. Knowing that divorce was out of the question, as both he and Catherine were Roman Catholic and the Catholic church prohibited divorce, Henry's idea was to ask the pope to annul the marriage, which would declare it null and void, as well as invalid.

Pope Clement VII refused to fulfill Henry's wishes, mainly because of Emperor Charles V of Spain, who was Catherine's nephew and who took control of Rome, giving him the power to influence the pope's decisions. Infuriated, Henry decided to ignore the pope's refusal to annul the marriage and declared himself the supreme head of the Church of England (Act of Supremacy, 1534) and married Anne without the blessings or authorization of the pope.

Thus, the Church of England became separate from the Catholic church, and the Anglican doctrine became its main theology. The 1538 Act of Supremacy described the Church of England as both Catholic and Reformed (Protestant Reformation) and declared the monarch the supreme governor of the Church of England.

Calvinism started in Switzerland, where Huldrych Zwingli founded the Swiss Reformed Church and believed that the state and the church were ruled by God and God only. His Reformed theology, which was in opposition with the Lutheran claims and teachings that Christ is present in the Eucharist, began to spread not only in Switzerland but in parts of Europe too, until it reached John Calvin, who became the most popular Reformed theologian and the most important figure in Calvinism. In fact, Calvinism was named after John Calvin; the name was actually given by Lutheran theologians, who considered Reformed theology heresy.

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