Explain the situation, problems and ways these early presidents sought to stay out of war and why they ultimately failed and what the result was.During the adminstrations of Washington,Adams,Jefferson and Madison.Europe was nearly constantly at war and it grew increasingly difficult for the new United States to stay out.Explain the situation, problems and ways these early presidents sought to stay out of war and why they ultimately failed and what the result was.

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Historically, almost every president has faced situations where war was possible. President Washington made it clear that the United States would do whatever was necessary to avoid going to war, because he knew that the United States, as a new country, was in no position to go to war, especially against established European countries. He negotiated treaties, such as Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty, which avoided war with Great Britain and Spain. President Washington was successful in keeping the United States out of wars with the major European powers.

President Adams also faced challenges where war was a possibility. When France was seizing American ships and interfering with its trade, there was a good deal of pressure put on President Adams to go to war with France. Americans were upset that France wouldn't initially meet with the American representatives, and when they did meet, they wanted money from the United States in order for negotiations to continue. However, President Adams didn’t think the country was ready for war and instead reached an agreement where both countries agreed not to seize each other’s ships. Even though his decision not to go to war may have hurt President Adams politically, he felt it was in the country’s best interests to avoid war.

President Jefferson also had to deal with France and Great Britain interfering with American trade. President Jefferson decided it was best for the United States to do no trading when American ships were being seized. The Embargo Act was passed, which prevented the US from trading with its major trading partners. However, this was not good for the American economy, so the Non-Intercourse Act was passed to take its place. The Non-Intercourse Act allowed the United States to trade with all countries except Great Britain and France, and it left the door open to American trade with either of these countries if they agreed to stop interfering with American trade. President Jefferson didn’t want the United States to get dragged into a conflict with European nations.

President Madison was unable to avoid going to war. There was a group of young senators that got elected in 1810 called the War Hawks, who believed the United States should go to war against Great Britain, because they believed the British were encouraging the Native Americans to attack western settlements. These senators were also upset that Great Britain was interfering with American trade and impressing American sailors. As a result, the United States went to war against Great Britain in 1812, in a war known as the War of 1812.

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Most of these presidents stayed out of war because they believed the U.S. was not strong enough militarily to engage in a European war, neither did the U.S. stand to benefit from engaging in such a war.

Although he received pressure from both Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton to intervene in the Anglo-French wars of the day, George Washington issued his famous Proclamation of Neutrality. In it he avoided use of the word neutral but rather stated that the U.S. would remain "friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers." When the French Ambassador, Charles Genet, attempted to stir up support for France and even attempted to lead a revolt against Washington, the President threatened to expell him from the country. Genet, in turn, quieted down and remained in the U.S. the rest of his life.

The situation grew more difficult for all three Presidents as U.S. merchants continued to trade with the belligerents and both sides interfered with American shipping, France through Napoleon's Continental System and Great Britain through its Orders in Council. Both were intended to prevent presumed neutral powers from aiding the other side.

Under the Adams administration, war with France seemed inevitable after the XYZ affair; however Adams wanted France to be the instigator if war were declared. When issues with France were resolved, Alexander Hamilton opposed the deal, as he hoped to capture Louisiana and feed his own ego by military glory. Adams threatened to resign if the terms of the treaty were not accepted.

When Americans continued to trade with belligerents during the Jefferson Administration, Jefferson imposed an embargo which prohibited trade outside the U.S. This did not hurt the warring powers, but did cripple American shipping.

Jefferson's successor, James Madison was ultimately unsuccessful in avoiding war, and was President when war against Britain was declared in 1812. The ostensible cause of the war was the British practice of Impressment in which presumed British deserters were removed from American ships and forced to sail (and fight) on British vessels. However, all efforts to prevent war were ultimately unsuccessful because Americans persisted in trading with the belligerent powers. Interference by Britain and France were obvious factors, but private attempts by U.S. citizens to profit from the war ultimately led the U.S. into war.   A lesser element was the determination of the war hawks in Congress, including Henry Clay ahnd John C. Calhoun, to make Canada a part of the U.S., a dream that was never close to realization.

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