Glycolysis is the biochemical pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate. The energy released in this reaction is used in order to form the high-energy molecules called the ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).
The summary of the chemical equation for the process of glycolysis can be written as:
Glucose + 2 [NAD]- + 2ADP + 2P- ---> 2 Pyruvate + 2NADH +
2ATP + 2H+ + 2H2O
The process can be simplified into three steps.
1. Activation of glucose - 2 ATP molecules will be used to form the biphosphate molecule
2. Splitting of glucose - the 6-carbon molecule will split into two 3-carbon molecule with one phosphate groups attached to it.
3. Energy generation -2 NAD- are reduced to NADH while 2 more P’s are attached to each 3-carbon molecule. By the action of enzymes, ADP will be transformed into ATP. The source of P's comes from the two P's attached to each 3-carbon molecule. 2NADH and 4ATP are formed. Since the reaction initially used 2 ATP, the net ATP produced are 2 ATPs.
**this is only a brief summary of glycolysis.
The most basic definition of glycolysis is "glucose splitting."
1 glucose in, 2 pyruvate out
Net gain of 2 ATP, with 2 in to drive it and 4 out
2 NADH are released from NAD+
The formed pyruvate then continues to the second step of aerobic respiration: pyruvate oxidation, or the formation of acetyl-CoA.