Originating in England during the 1880s, the Arts and Crafts Movement was a major worldwide design movement until the beginning of World War II. Probably the most well known character of the movement was William Morris (1834-1896), an artist and writer who adhered to the writings of John Ruskin. It developed as "a reaction against the impoverished state of the decorative arts" and the production values of the period. Traditional craftsmanship, with an emphasis on hand-crafted materials, was a major focus. The movement was decidedly anti-industrial, with simplistic usage of past forms considered essential. The movement included many genres, including architecture, fabrics, tiles, ceramics, furniture, art, interior design and metalwork. Many of the early arts and crafts organizations which began in England were based on medieval guilds of the past, and many apprentices were employed to learn the trade. The American Arts and Crafts Movement followed England's lead, attempting to "reinterpret" the British movement, and it became closely associated with the new Progressivism political movement.