Explain modernism and abstraction. Refer to one example to illustrate your explanation.
Abstraction (or abstract art) is usually based on objects from the real world but the final result has little or no relation to the literal depiction. The work is reshaped from its natural origins into the artist's own expressive interpretation. Such abstraction often utilized recent advances in the scientific world, psychoanalytical theories and geometric designs. Kazimir Malevich's Black Square (1913) is such an example.
Modernism (or modern art) is generally defined as any kind of modern interpretation of an object, and the movement was a revolt against the more conservative realist forms. Most modernists questioned or even rejected the existence of God and of the Enlightenment (or other past movements) and drew upon their own self-consciousness. Experimentation with form was also a preoccupation. Edvard Munch's The Scream (1893) is one of modern art's most famous paintings.