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An entire book or volumes of books can be composed on this subject. I would think that the space given to me here would not be able to fully answer the question. Management process is the manner in which an individual in the position of power determines the best way to work with their organization in order to maximize results and secure productivity in work. I think from this point, one gets into a variety of different management styles and techniques. Some are very autocratic, where power comes from top down in a very stratified format. Others are more participatory and steeped in the notion of validating voice and experience in the process of management. The choice of which technique or style to adopt is dependent on the individual in the position of power, the situation in which they enter, and the people they are going to manage. Hybrids of different styles can be employed, but the manager has to reflect in a very thorough manner on the process and paradigm in which they are going to function as the leader of individuals.
Different authors and management experts have described management process in different ways. One of the most widely accepted way of looking at management process is to divide it in four sub-processes which are performed in an iterative and repetitive sequence. These four steps or sub-processes of management are:
- Planning or decision making
- Organizing (including staffing)
- Leading (including motivating)
The process of planning involves deciding the objectives, aims, and targets to be achieved by the organization or activity to be managed, and the ways and means of achieving these objectives.
Organizing refers to designing and creating a structure of group of people to undertake the tasks as required by the plans created in the previous stage. This activities involves determining what activities will be performed by whom in the group, how various people in the group will relate to each other, finding the right people to perform the tasks, and instructing and training the people for satisfactory performance of work to be done by them.
Leading refers the process of ensuring that the people in the organization are committed to the objectives and plans of the organization and extend their best efforts towards implementation of the plans, and implementation of the objectives.
Management involves working in an environment full of uncertainties, and because of these the organization and leading activities rarely give results exactly as envisaged. Frequently, because of uncertainties in environment as well as in human behavior with in the organization, the actual work done and results obtained differ from plans. In such situation it is necessary to regularly monitor the developments in environment against what was expected, and to monitor work being actually done and results obtained against the plans. Any deviations detected by such reviews then become a trigger for revising the plans other management processes following it. This activity of reviewing the actual performance and initiating mid-course corrective action is called controlling.
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