What were some major elements of the the intellectual transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance?
Many different factors combine to define the transition from the late medieval to Renaissance period. One of the major ones is the rediscovery of a wide range of ancient materials in the wake of the fall of the Byzantine Empire. In terms of language, there was a simultaneous shift from the medieval church Latin to Ciceronian Latin in the wake or recovery of Cicero's letters, along with a striking rise in vernacular literary. The Reformation (and counter-Reformation) marked a shift in religious thinking, and especially a diminution of Church authority and emphasis on direct reading of primary texts using early manuscripts. Philosophy became more practical and secular, with increasing focus on the natural world.