Explain how the stucture of the neuron contributes to the functioning of the organ system to which it belongs.

1 Answer

ncchemist's profile pic

ncchemist | eNotes Employee

Posted on

Neurons are a type of cell that make up the nervous system.  These cells are flat and long.  They generally consist of a main body (called a soma), an axon, and numerous dendrites.  These dendrites often have complex branching networks that can form many synapses, or a junction between two neurons.  Also, neurons maintain an electrochemical potential across their membranes through the use of ion channels and ion pumps that maintain a gradient.  The result of all of this is that neurons are clearly designed for transmitting electrical impulses across the body.  Neurons can form complex networks of communication traversing the entire organism.  These impulse signals travel along the electrochemical gradient and traverse synapses to travel from neuron to neuron.  This is how the nervous system is able to transmit signals across the body.