Explain how religion served as a social type of deviance in the cases of witch persecutions, residential schooling, and the child-savers movement.

Religion served as a social type of deviance in the case of residential schooling in the fact that parents who felt that schools were too secular, modern, or corrupting because of their religious views chose to give their children an education at home instead.

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Christianity has been the single dominant organizing force in the Anglo-European West since the fall of the Roman Empire. Even in advanced, wealthy democracies like the US, Christian, specifically Protestant, ideals inform conservative politics while defining national values regarding justice, charity, and morality. Just as the seventeenth-century Puritan clergy used their misogynistic, hypocritical conception of Christianity to define the social order and designate who is in and out of the community, latter-generation social movements continued to embrace similarly exclusive views about what constituted deviant or corrupt social influence.

To take the example of residential, or "home" schooling, a majority of parents who choose this option for their children do so out of a sense of commitment to their religious convictions or to a political ideology infused with Protestant nativism. In the eyes of these parents, even the religious-based schools are too liberal in their concessions to modernity and multiculturalism, which are seen as corrupting, blasphemous, even apocalyptic.

In other words, the secular, progressive mindset has produced a culture that the Christian homeschool parent views as wicked, ungodly or unpatriotic. Parents cannot trust the failed system to give their children an education in line with certain accepted religious or political views, so they assume the burden themselves.

Like other transatlantic social justice causes during the Progressive era of the latter eighteenth century, the child-savers movement can be viewed as a modern crusade against exploitation and neglect steeped in Protestant morality and ethics regarding work, status, and human progress. The social front gave middle-class Christian housewives an arena for political influence normally denied them otherwise, and they sought to improve the lives of society's most vulnerable, largely the offspring of (Catholic) immigrant parents living and working in squalid urban conditions.

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