Explain how early modern absolute monarchy, the Baroque style, and the Scientific Revolution were responses to the turmoil of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

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Absolute monarchies, which emerged in the seventeenth century, can be understood in one sense as a response to the unrest of the previous century. In France, for example, Louis XIV emerged as the most powerful monarch that kingdom had yet seen. The sixteenth century in France had witnessed a series of destructive religious civil wars that eventually gave way into the Thirty Years' War, a broader European struggle. Many of the writers and political theorists who defended absolutism, like Jean Bodin and Jacques-Benigne Bossuet saw the absolute power of kings as a way to avoid this kind of unrest, especially domestic unrest, in the future. To cite another example Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan, which argues that the powers of the state should be vested in a single powerful monarch, was written in the aftermath of the bloody English Civil War.

Similarly, some historians interpret the emerging rationalism of the Scientific Revolution as a response to the same turmoil, especially religious strife. In the midst of the seventeenth century, many educated Europeans sought to establish a new intellectual order, one founded on rationalism rather than subjective experience. Thomas Hobbes, in fact, was a mathematician, and Leviathan, mentioned above, is a good example of this trend. Hobbes started from the principle that men acted solely out of self-interest, and used this axiom to demonstrate, in his mind, that absolute monarchy was the most suited to the realities of the world. 

Finally, the Baroque movement was influenced by its surroundings in many ways. On the one hand, the majesty of Baroque architecture and some of its art (like the work of Peter Paul Rubens) was intended to project the power of monarchs, their ability to maintain order, and the fact that they had been divinely chosen. More directly, some Baroque art, like that of the Italian painter Caravaggio, for example, is characterized by its dramatic, even violent themes, which directly invoke the violent struggles of the period. 

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