Explain how a penetrating injury will disrupt pulmonary ventilation and the pressure changes that occur.

A penetrating injury to the pleural membrane or intrapleural space will result in air and blood entering the intrapleural space. This causes the negative pressure environment to be disrupted and the lungs to collapse. This can be repaired with surgery and a chest drain device.

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The pleural membrane is a thin, moist structure with two layers. The outer layer lines the inside of the rub cage and diaphragm, and the inner layer covers the lungs. The intrapleural space is located between the two layers. The intrapleural space contains fluid secreted by the two membrane layers,...

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The pleural membrane is a thin, moist structure with two layers. The outer layer lines the inside of the rub cage and diaphragm, and the inner layer covers the lungs. The intrapleural space is located between the two layers. The intrapleural space contains fluid secreted by the two membrane layers, which allows the layers to slide over each other as the lungs expand and deflate during breathing. The seal of the pleural membranes keeps the lungs connected to the rig cage. This results in a negative pressure within the intrapleural space. During inhalation, the pressure within the intrapleural space becomes even more negative. If the pleural membrane or intrapleural space is ruptured (e.g. due to a stab wound or spontaneous rupture), air enters into the intrapleural space and results in an air-containing space between the lungs and chest wall. This causes the intrapleural space to fill with blood and additional fluids and cancels the negative pressure atmosphere necessary for breathing. The seal of the pleural membranes will be broken, and the movement of the chest wall will no longer expand the lung for breathing. The lung in the injured area will collapse. Pleural membrane and intrapleural space injuries can be repaired with surgery and usually require a chest drain device to remove the fluid.

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