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The Chocolate War explores the theme of conformity versus non-conformity and, at its core, the conflict of the book is created by this theme.
One of the first articulations of this theme comes in Jerry's run-in with the leader of the hippies. The hippies congregate in a park across the street from the school and every day Jerry stands and stares at them in the park, contemplating their decisions as he sees them.
A hippy approaches him one day and calls Jerry "a square", a conformist who is loyal to the system of rules represented by his school uniform.
This episode brings the 1960s into focus as a cultural background for the book and identifies the idea of conformity as a part of the cultural context of the Vietnam era wherein the book is set.
Jerry's later decisions to resist peer pressure and (following the poster in his locker) to choose to "disturb the universe" are grounded in this first run-in with the hippies, their politics and the question of conformity versus non-conformity.
It signifies a time of change and invention of new things, celebration of oneself, religion, purpose and society etc. which are interwoven and interrelated to each other and can be found in the book, which is related to the themes above
The 1960s were a time of change, of celebration of the individual, and of questioning convention, society, and religion. All of these themes are in the Chocolate War. In general you might say that some of the themes of the Chocolate War are directly related to the themes in society at the time of the 1960s
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