Explain the growth of industry in the late 1800s?

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By the 1830s, the process of industrialisation was well-established in America and it had occurred for a number of important reasons:

  • The population had more than quadrupled between 1814 and 1860. There were over 31 million people in the U.S., a figure which had grown, in part, as a result of unprecedented levels of immigration. This created a constant supply of labourers who headed to the cities in search of work.
  • Literacy rates had grown steadily. By 1850, nine out of every ten white adults could read and write. More and more newspapers and magazines were printed and sold and this made it much easier for new ideas to disseminate across the country.
  • Production moved out of the home and into new workplaces. In 1790, for example, Samuel Slater built America's first textile factory in Rhode Island. Around the same time, large furnaces and mills began to replace the small iron forges in Pennsylvania.
  • Finally, new inventions, like the railroad and the telegraph, enabled people to move and communicate quickly and efficiently across the country. They also knitted together America's cities and states to create a national economy, primed for industrialisation. 




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