Explain Gilligan's ethics of care, the differences she points out between her approach and Kohlberg's approach, and how her system can be applied to criminal justice ethics.
Gilligan's theory of care ethics asserted that mainstream moral philosophy, including Kohlberg's stages of moral development, privileged male values while ignoring those of women and children. She believed that ethical dilemmas should be addressed with compassion and context rather than universal imperatives. An example of Gilligan's theory at work in the criminal justice system is a restoration circle, which focuses on repairing the harm done to the community rather than punishing the offender.
Care ethics is a branch of moral philosophy popularized in the 1980s by philosopher Carol Gilligan. Gilligan was one of the first contemporary philosophers to take into account gendered differences in moral decision making. This is why care ethics are sometimes known as feminist ethics or even gender ethics. Gilligan argued that most mainstream moral philosophy came from a European male lens. Instead of focusing so much on moral imperatives and outcomes, care ethics emphasize the importance of relationships and emotion when it comes to ethical dilemmas. Gilligan says that this ethical framework is "an ethic grounded in voice and relationships, in the importance of everyone having a voice, being listened to carefully (in their own right and on their own terms) and heard with respect" (source: "Interview with Carol Gilligan" ). Previous moral theories tried to claim that moral reasoning was a deductive, logical process that would lead to the same conclusion in essentially every situation....
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