All stories, regardless of length, include basic components such as characters, setting, conflict, and action or plot. By definition, a "short story" will be more succinct in presenting these elements and may not provide as much detail as a full-length novel, but they will all be presented in the early stages of the story. Without this information, the story will not make sense or have any value.
Different authors have differing ways of organizing and presenting this information to their readers. A longer story may present characters and setting in great depth before introducing the conflict that will drive the action of the story. However,
modern short stories only occasionally have an exposition. More typical, though, is an abrupt beginning, with the story starting in the middle of the action