Certainly, much of literature is written that includes this motif. From the time of the Greek tragedies, Oedipus of Sophocles's trilogy is a character who pays the ultimate price for his choices. For, his fate is sealed by his excessive pride and tragic mistake, or hamartia which lead him to kill Laius, his predecessor as king of Thebes.
When he first hears of the plague that haunts Thebes, Oedipus proudly annnounces that he will rid the city of this "pollution." Of course the 'pollution' is that of Oedipus himself, and when told by the blind prophet Teiresias that he is the very cause of the misery of the people, Oedipus refuses to believe him. When Oedipus learns that he has, in fact, murdered his father, laius and married his mother, Jacasta, he is so overcome with his shame, that he puts out this eyes. Banished from Thebes, his daughter leads him from Thebes. Humiliated and shamed, Oedipus Rex leaves Thebes in disgrace as the hasty and pompous acts of his youth seal his fate.
In reality, the news is replete with stories of dictators who have suffered the consequences of their dastardly deeds. Saddam Hussain saw his life terminated as a result of his treatment his own people. Richard Nixon was made to resign the presideny after his fiasco of taping Watergate's Democratic headquarters.