Entire books have been written on each of these topics, so the following is just an abbreviated explanation of these important terms.
Industrialization is the transformation of an economy from farming to factories, and it is generally accompanied by urbanization. People leave the countryside and move to the cities; this movement of people to city areas is called urbanization. This change began in England in the late eighteenth century and spread to other areas.
Capitalism is economic system in most of the advanced world, including the United States. Economies are built around capital, which is the money needed to fuel them. Economic decisions are made by individuals rather than governments, and free markets are essential. The Cold War was a contest between capitalism and communism.
Nationalism refers to peoples that are united in a country. They are a tribe with a common language, culture, and history. Nationalism makes people feel proud of their country. Nationalism, like industrialization, really began to flourish in the nineteenth century.
Ethnocentrism is a kind of extreme nationalism, and it can cause problems. First, it causes people to judge other ethnic groups using their own perspectives. Second, it can lead to xenophobia.
Eurocentrism is the tendency to view the world from a European standpoint. Its origins stem from the fact that Europe dominated the world during much of recent history. Western Civilization courses have been criticized for their Eurocentrism, so many academic institutions prefer to offer world history.
Imperialism is the domination of weaker peoples or nations by more powerful ones. Formal imperialism is largely a thing of the past. But neocolonialism still exists.