Tragicomedy contains elements of both tragedy and comedy. This means that the work features humorous situations in which an audience or reader will laugh or smile as well as others in which they will be saddened or disturbed by unfortunate situations or incidents. The tale might feature a number of tragic events but typically has a happy conclusion—usually after a series of mishaps. The characters, as well as their actions and words, are mostly exaggerated and the story incorporates jokes throughout to lighten the tone and mood.
Waiting for Godot, which is categorized as belonging in the realm of Absurd Theatre, is a good example of tragicomedy. Our two protagonists, Estragon and Vladimir, are caught up in an absurd situation: they are waiting for Godot, but they do not really know who he is or why they are waiting. They do not even know what would happen if Godot should arrive. The play explores their interactions and depicts comical situations and dialogue.
It is also quite funny to witness Estragon repeatedly removing and putting on his boots and Vladimir’s hat game seems like a circus act. Their actions are quite funny when Vladimir walks about stiffly because of a prostate problem and Estragon limps around. Their comedic actions remind one of a Vaudeville play. Much of what the two men do is quite farcical, such as when Estragon encourages Vladimir to urinate off stage. Their dialogues occur like a comic paradigm throughout.
The play also features many moments of anguish and despair. Estragon, for example, is beaten daily. Both tramps experience serious medical problems and are constantly in pain and both refer to how much it hurts. Estragon's feet give him constant problems whilst Vladimir has issues with his prostrate and struggles to urinate. Both characters survive at the barest level of existence and live off carrots, radishes and turnips. Their lives are essentially miserable and they find solace in doing nothing. As Estragon remarks:
Do not let us do anything, it's safer.
Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it’s awful.
By definition, a Tragicomedy is a play that employs a plot suitable to tragedy but ends happily like a comedy. The action seems to be leading to a tragic catastrophe until the unexpected turn of events bring about the happy ending.
Beckett himself called this play a tragicomedy in two acts mostly because of the black humor--humor caused by something truly painful.
With Waiting for Godot, we have what's called Theatre of the Absurd. This type of drama focuses on a view of the absurdity of the human condition by abandoning usual or rational devices. The form is usually nonrealistic. Two old friends are waiting by a tree for a man named Godot to come along. We never meet Godot, but we exist as the men do--sitting, listening to their conversation about how bleak their lives are and why didn't they kill themselves years ago before things got so bad. A boy comes to tell them Godot will not be coming, and still they sit.
Once you get over the initial boredom of the play, you realize that it is very funny. Nothing really happens--just events they recall through conversation. However, no one dies, either, which is usually the sign of a tragedy.