Tragicomedy contains elements of both tragedy and comedy. This means that the work features humorous situations in which an audience or reader will laugh or smile as well as others in which they will be saddened or disturbed by unfortunate situations or incidents. The tale might feature a number of tragic events but typically has a happy conclusion—usually after a series of mishaps. The characters, as well as their actions and words, are mostly exaggerated and the story incorporates jokes throughout to lighten the tone and mood.
Waiting for Godot, which is categorized as belonging in the realm of Absurd Theatre, is a good example of tragicomedy. Our two protagonists, Estragon and Vladimir, are caught up in an absurd situation: they are waiting for Godot, but they do not really know who he is or why they are waiting. They do not even know what would happen if Godot should arrive. The play explores their interactions and depicts comical situations and dialogue.
The overriding mood in the play is very similar to dark comedy. For example, Vladimir is determined not to hear Estragon’s nightmare. The latter pleads with him in vain to hear him, saying that there is nobody else to whom he may communicate his private nightmares.
It is also quite funny to witness Estragon repeatedly removing and putting on his boots and Vladimir’s hat game seems like a circus act. Their actions are quite funny when Vladimir walks about stiffly because of a prostate problem and Estragon limps around. Their comedic actions remind one of a Vaudeville play. Much of what the two men do is quite farcical, such as when Estragon encourages Vladimir to urinate off stage. Their dialogues occur like a comic paradigm throughout.
The play also features many moments of anguish and despair. Estragon, for example, is beaten daily. Both tramps experience serious medical problems and are constantly in pain and both refer to how much it hurts. Estragon's feet give him constant problems whilst Vladimir has issues with his prostrate and struggles to urinate. Both characters survive at the barest level of existence and live off carrots, radishes and turnips. Their lives are essentially miserable and they find solace in doing nothing. As Estragon remarks:
Do not let us do anything, it's safer.
This misery is accentuated not only by the fact that the men consider suicide, but also by the tragic circumstances of their fellow characters, Lucky and Pozzo. These two seem even more insignificant than our lead characters and especially Lucky's name is an ironic depiction of his true circumstances: he is to be sold by Pozzo. Furthermore, the air of impotent hopelessness which surrounds our two protagonists further accentuates the tragedy. For example, Estragon mentions:
Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it’s awful.
The impression created by the play is one of helplessness and the boredom which human beings have to experience in life. Beckett effectively depicts the purposelessness of human life in our times. Because of this, the play is dominated by a feeling of despair, and this is in itself tragic even though farcical situations are used to suit the author’s design of a tragicomedy.