Aristotle conceives of two kinds of self-love. The first, which is immoral, means something close to greed or gluttony. A person who is constantly out to satisfy their own hungers and desires, such as for money, is defined in this way. Aristotle sees this kind of self-love as bad because it is a sort of zero-sum game, where people compete with each other for these things and even deny them to others. Authentic self-love, however, is something far different. It is actually selfless, because people who practice this kind of self-love want power in order to use it for the good of all. This is similar to some classical definitions of virtue or even patriotism.
Rousseau also focuses on self-love, especially in his Discourses on Inequality. One form of self-love, which he calls amour propre, is a sense of self-regard based on the opinions of others. Descartes believes this form of self-esteem is lesser than amour de soi, a more primitive and natural sense of self esteem related to one's ability to provide for oneself. Amour propre is a function of living in society, while amour de soi-meme comes from within and is associated by Rousseau with the state of nature. In a way, Rousseau's sense of self-love is the inverse of Aristotle's. What Aristotle sees as patriotic and pure, Rousseau sees as corrupted.