BOXER. Boxer is a cart-horse and the strongest of all the animals. He has complete faith in the pigs' decisions and is willing to work longer hours than all the rest. He is rewarded for his steadfast loyalty with a trip to the horse slaughterers.
CLOVER. Clover is the motherly cart-horse and close friend of Boxer. She is skeptical of many of the pigs' decisions, but eventually goes along with their rule changes.
OLD MAJOR. The leader of the animals until his death, Old Major is a "prize white boar" pig. He represents Karl Marx in the story, and it is his predictions and foresight that spark the rebellion.
SNOWBALL. He is one of the two pig leaders (along with Napoleon) of the rebellion. Brave and intelligent, he represents Leon Trotsky. His heroism at the Battle of the Cowshed is eventually repudiated by Napoleon, who drives Snowball from the farm.
BENJAMIN. Bad-tempered Benjamin is the oldest animal on the farm, and he serves as an intellectual voice of cynicsm among the animals.
NAPOLEON. The eventual leader of the animals, his dictatorial style represents both the French dictator for who he is named as well as Joseph Stalin. After eliminating Snowball, he gains unbridled control of the animals and eventually takes on many human characteristics.
SQUEALER. The tiny fat pig becomes Napoleon's second-in-command and represents the propaganda wing of the animal aristocracy.