The only one of these concepts I can apply to Mexican-Americans and their experience here is that of dual construction of ethnicity. For the majority of Mexicans in the 1800s, they were living in the Southwest, between Texas and California.
At the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded 40% of what was then Mexico to the US. As many descendants of those Mexicans living at the time say today, "We didn't cross the border, the border crossed us".
Dula construction applies because they maintained their language, some of their lands, their ways of life, religion, but were also now "Americans" and over time had to adjust to a new government and a white-dominated society.
They were neither uprooted or transplanted. They were home, and home had changed.