Emmanuel Goldstein is most likely Orwell's nod to Leon Trotsky; his description is somewhat close but not close enough to be an absolute identification. Trotsky was a leader of the Russian Revolution whose theories and writings were discredited. Trotsky himself ultimately exiled and later killed, after the acquisition of power by his political adversary Josef Stalin. In the novel Goldstein serves as the object of the ritualistic expressions of hate that are part of the ongoing indoctrination of Party members. When Winston actually gets hold of Goldstein's actual writings, he realizes that the man he has been trained to hate has nothing to do with the real Goldstein. Goldstein serves as a reminder of the necessity of objects of group hatred in totalitarian societies, and how such objects serve to reinforce the power of those (like Big Brother - but how "real" is he?) who define who is good and who is bad.