One of the most famous examples of figurative language in the Odyssey, repeated often, is the phrase "rosy-fingered dawn." Instead of simply saying the sun rose or dawn broke or the day began, Homer employs a metaphor (a comparison that does not use the words like or as) that likens the rising sun to rosy fingers. This metaphor paints a picture in our mind of what dawn is like as the sun pokes it way up into the sky.
Homer uses alliteration as well. In alliteration, words that begin with same consonant are placed close to each other. Homer, for example, describes Odysseus's son Telemachus as follows, the many "s" sounds creating a sense of rhythm:
He slung a sharp sword from his shoulders, then laced
his lovely sandals over his shining feet.
Rather than just narrate events, Homer at times uses the literary device of dialogue to create a sense of immediacy, as if we are there with the characters, overhearing their words. For example, we feel the poignancy of Telemachus's simple diction as he speaks...
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