Certainly, the Civil War destroyed an aristocratic South, putting an end to the "feudal" system of wealthy landowners who owned property such as slaves. These slaves were made free men, who, after subsequent legislation by Congress, have been able to obtain the highest offices as well as business positions in the United States.
Added to the devastation of the plantations and much poverty, carpetbaggers and scalawags further damaged the South through their exploitation. The situation was so bad that Grant asked Lincoln to have these people removed as they impeded any effort to rebuild the South.
The economic setback to the South lasted for decades. Although the United States remained as one country, a number of Southern states through the 20th century have had to receive a disportionate amount of federal aid and intervention.
This intervention by the Federal government has caused dissension and resentment between it and the South on such issues as voting rights, desegregation, politcal boundaries, hiring practices, and education.