As a teacher, one of the major areas of debates relates to whether we should differentiate or scaffold our students with additional needs. Differentiation means that we would provide different tasks and activities, so their learning plan might look quite different to students who do not have additional needs. In contrast, scaffolding means that all of our students complete the same tasks and have the same learning plan but we provide structured support to help those with additional needs. There is considerable debate around which of these two methods is the most effective. Provided is a reference link with some in-text citations, which may be worth exploring.
Another area of debate relates to how to assess students with additional needs. Again, educators disagree over whether or not we should create different assessments for these students, particularly as we measure their progress over the course of a semester or academic year. Usually, this means focusing less on structured or essay-style assessments because we know that so many students struggle with longer pieces of writing. In contrast, some educators advocate support strategies to help them access mainstream assessments, like having access to a scribe or reader. It would be interesting to research how different types of needs affect assessment performance and outcomes, considering specifically if students with additional needs are inhibited by current practice. See the reference link for some relevant in-text citations.