In regard to writing speeches that are meant to persuade others, what is considered to be the elements of persuasion you should use? I was thinking it was Aristotle's logos, ethos, and pathos. Are there any other elements?

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Ancient rhetoric was divided into five "canons," or parts:

  • Invention: finding arguments
  • Arrangement: organizing a speech into a coherent and effective whole
  • Style: using figures of speech effectively and paying close attention to word choice
  • Memory: necessary for extemporizing and also contains a storehouse of information you can use in the composing process
  • Delivery: the effectiveness of a speech or a piece of writing depends not just on what you say but on presentation

Invention itself includes the three "pisteis," or proofs. Arguments from logos should include both induction and deduction as well as take advantage of the common and special topics, which are various important argumentative strategies. The"pragmata," or facts, were considered extrinsic to rhetoric by Aristotle, but many other theorists emphasize how to use facts and other extrinsic forms of proof.

A typical classical oration consisted of six parts:

  • Introduction: intended to capture the attention and goodwill of the audience
  • Narration: sets out the facts of the case
  • Division: metadiscursive transition in which you describe what you will argue and what you will not
  • Confirmation: a section focused on proving your main thesis
  • Refutation: refutes potential counterarguments
  • Conclusion: arouses emotions  or contains a call to action

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