Elaborate on the five-factor model of trait personality theory.

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boblawrence eNotes educator| Certified Educator

In 1992 Costa and McCrea published their Five Factor Model (FFM) or so called “Big 5” broad categories or dimensions of personality types.  The authors sought to explain certain academic behaviors based on personality type.

The five factors are represented by the mnemonic “OCEAN” and are as follows:

Openness:  curious, likes novelty and variety

Conscientiousness:  disciplined, organized and goal-driven

Extraversion:  assertive, talkative, sociable

Agreeableness:  cooperative, helpful, sympathetic toward others

Neuroticism:  anxious, impulsive, emotionally unstable

Here are the academic behaviors associated with the five personality traits:

O:  curiosity and appreciation of art, variety and adventure

C:  dutiful and self-disciplined

E:  energetic, positive, gregarious

A:  cooperative and compassionate

N:  quick to experience anxiety, depression, anger and vulnerability

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