In "Dulce et Decorum Est," what is the grim joke of "blood-shod"?

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I don't know that I would call this a "joke" of any kind, but I suppose you are really asking about Owen's deliberate choice of words here being at once a metaphor and, almost, a homophone for something else. By "blood-shod," Owen means to imply that the soldiers are so weary and struggling so much, having walked so far for so long, that they are wearing blood on their feet rather than shoes. The soldiers in question, the "some," have lost their boots in the struggle of the war but are unable to do anything other than continue to march, leading their feet to become torn, shredded, and bloody. They are not literally "shod" in blood—indeed, they are unshod—but their feet appear red with blood. Owen plays a lot with sound and rhymes/half-rhymes in his poetry, too, however, so we can also pick up on the similarity of sound between "blood-shod" and "bloodshot," a much more commonly used word. "Bloodshot" usually refers to the way our eyes appear when we are sore and very tired, so it seems to fit in this context. We can imagine that these very weary and tired soldiers are likely to have bloodshot eyes to accompany their "blood-shod" feet, completing the picture of exhaustion Owen paints.

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The narrator describes the plight of the foot soldiers during World War I.  They march and they march, through mud, bent over double from carrying their heavy packs.  All the men are exhausted and disheartened, but they have no choice but to march on.  The speaker says that "Many had lost their boots, / But limped on, blood-shod" (lines 6-7).  In other words, if a soldier lost his boots somehow, he would have no other option but to continue on or be left behind to die.  So, even soldiers without boots would continue to march, over battlefields and rocks, bloodying their feet.  In fact, there might eventually be so much blood that it would actually appear that they were wearing shoes made of blood: thus they appeared to be blood shod.  It is an incredibly jarring image that sounds terribly painful and indicates just how tortuous being a soldier in this war was. 

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