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The Harappan or Indus Valley civilization was a Bronze Age society that flourished from approximately 3300 to 1300 B.C. Compared to the twenty-first century, Harappan society was less technologically advanced.
Although they created outstanding art and pottery, and used metal tools, they did not smelt iron, or have the capability to work with such advanced materials as plastics, titanium, aluminum, or steel. Communication and transportation were limited by the speed of boats and animals. Despite this, the Harappan society was quite sophisticated for its period, having an accurate system of measurements and sophisticated arts and crafts. Their sewage and water supply systems were actually more sophisticated than those found in many parts of contemporary India and Pakistan. They also seem to have had less income inequality than modern societies, with few markers of differential status or wealth.
The Harappan civilization included well-planned cities with massive walls and sophisticated systems of food storage, as well as docks for ships. Although the symbols found by archaeologists have not been deciphered, it is likely that Harappan culture had some form of writing, but it was not as ubiquitous as writing today.
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