Draw a comparison between Harappan society and the society of the present day.

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Having existed between three and five thousand years ago, there are many differences between Harappan society and today's. However, there are also a number of striking similarities. Leaving aside all the technological differences, we can draw a comparison showing how society on the ancient Indus River Valley was similar and different from modern society.

Most of what we know about the Harappans comes from archaeological discoveries. Their writing system has not been deciphered, so we know very little about their cultural norms and beliefs.

Like urban planners today, Harappans built their cities by strategically laying out their buildings and roads in an organized grid. They also built effective drainage and sewage systems. Public waterworks were not as sophisticated as today's, but Harappan cities still included hydraulics to make sure that every neighborhood had access to drinking water.

We don't know too much about the government of the Harappan civilization. It may have been based on the regional power of city-states. If so, this is very different from most governments today, in which cities are part of a larger nation.

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The Harappan or Indus Valley civilization was a Bronze Age society that flourished from approximately 3300 to 1300 B.C. Compared to the twenty-first century, Harappan society was less technologically advanced.

Although they created outstanding art and pottery, and used metal tools, they did not smelt iron, or have the capability to work with such advanced materials as plastics, titanium, aluminum, or steel. Communication and transportation were limited by the speed of boats and animals. Despite this, the Harappan society was quite sophisticated for its period, having an accurate system of measurements and sophisticated arts and crafts. Their sewage and water supply systems were actually more sophisticated than those found in many parts of contemporary India and Pakistan. They also seem to have had less income inequality than modern societies, with few markers of differential status or wealth.

The Harappan civilization included well-planned cities with massive walls and sophisticated systems of food storage, as well as docks for ships. Although the symbols found by archaeologists have not been deciphered, it is likely that Harappan culture had some form of writing, but it was not as ubiquitous as writing today.

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