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This is a tricky question because although imperialism in the pre-WWII sense is gone, there are still actions by nations around the world that are reminiscent of imperialism. Following the end of WWII, European powers had largely divested themselves of their colonial holdings (although the process took several decades). Japan was defeated and lost all of its holdings throughout Asia (but still retained its emperor). The American nations were independent, save a few areas, and African nations were either independent or on their way to independence. Thus, imperialism in the classical sense—direct rule from a foreign power abroad—had ended.

However, countries can still be highly influenced by foreign powers. The US is often pointed to as a "neo-imperialist" power given its economic, military, and political might. There are hundreds of US military bases around the world; the UK, France, and Russia also have multiple bases in foreign countries. The US retains the role of de facto military for countries throughout the world, including many throughout the Western Hemisphere. Costa Rica and Panama, for example, do not have militaries but instead rely on the US for their defense (the US also maintains a large presence in Panama to protect the Panama Canal).

It would be foolish to think that this military presence does not have an influence over a nation's politics. But this is a relationship that costs both sides: Forfeiture of some aspect of national sovereignty for one, and the expenditure of money and military personnel for the other. With a military presence also comes economic growth, jobs, and a better standard of living for local inhabitants.

But militaries are only one way a country can have a neo-colonial influence. The other way is through economic expenditures. China has been increasingly accused of neo-colonialism in Africa, as it has become the biggest trading partner for numerous African countries. China has also been accused of taking resources from Africa while providing substandard infrastructure projects in return. Likewise, there has been a flood of Chinese laborers to African countries that have poor border controls, while cheap Chinese exports have driven out African competition.

If powerful countries like the US and China were to pull out militarily and economically from smaller countries abroad, what would happen to each? Smaller countries would more than likely be worse off economically and perhaps at risk from hostile neighboring countries. Powerful countries, meanwhile, would lose influence as well as access to natural resources within those smaller countries. Therefore, although the era of imperialism is over, the relationship between powerful nations and smaller ones continues in a patron-client manner because both get something out of it. In some respects, imperialism can be viewed as a historical reality even if we don't use the word "imperialism."

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In one sense, imperialism does not exist today.  This is the case if we define imperialism as the process where one country actually takes the territory of another country and makes it a part of its own country.  There are very few instances of this even being attempted, much less achieved, in recent times.  We could perhaps say that Iraq was attempting imperialism when it invaded Kuwait in 1990.  Outside of that, there are no instances that I can think of  (in at least the last 30 years) in which a country really tried to take another entire country and add it to its own territory.

On the other hand, we can conceive of imperialism a little more loosely and say that it does still exist.  If we say that imperialism occurs when a country uses its military, political, and economic power to extend its power and influence, then imperialism happens all the time.  By this definition, the US is an imperial power.  Our use of military power to oust Saddam Hussein and replace him with a more friendly government and our efforts in Afghanistan today would be seen as imperialism.  Chinese efforts to use their economic power to gain influence in Africa and other places would be imperialism as well.

All in all, then, it seems that the older, more blatant form of imperialism is dead but that there is still imperialism of a different sort today. 

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