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Yes. The two types of light sensitive cells in the retina, rods and cones, determine what you see. The rods are about 6 million in number, are color sensitive, are at the center of the retina in an area of the eye called the fovea and are employed when looking directly at an object. The cones, on the other hand, number about 120 million, and are scattered throughout the retina. Although they are not color sensitive, they are motion sensitive, and this would have had great adaptive value during the early days of humans, as the cones' color response would to help determine the ripeness of fruit.
Those with dark eyes tend to have pupils that widely dilate, allowing in more light to the retina, stimulating the rods, so peripheral vision is greater. Those with light eyes tend to have pupils that don't dilate as much, restricting the amount of light to the retina, so the rods aren't as stimulated, so peripheral vision is lesser.
What he said.
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