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There are two reasons why it is deemed necessary to have so many steps in the process by which a bill becomes a law.
One reason is the desire of the Framers to avoid having a government that could tyrannize the people or make really bad decisions on a whim. To avoid these things, the Framers decided to create a governmental system in which it would be hard to pass bills. Bills would have to be approved by two houses of Congress (elected at different times and from different constituencies) and then by the president (elected by the country as a whole). This would mean that a law would have to be approved by multiple people or groups, making it hard for laws to pass.
A second reason is responsible for the steps that the bills have to go through within each house of Congress. Bills have to be evaluated and voted on by subcommittees and committees as well as by each house as a whole. The reason for this is that Congress wants to get as much input as possible on each bill. They want each bill to be scrutinized by the committees and by interested parties in the public (through hearings).
Thus, the multiple steps in the process are deemed necessary to get the best possible laws and to prevent the laws from being oppressive.
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