Please note: The post contains numerous questions. The eNotes Homework Help policy allows for one question per post. This answer primarily addresses the first two questions.
The first two questions posed suggest contradictory situations. This answer is based on the assumption that the question refers to the contemporary United States. The idea of ignoring race has been suggested as a way to avoid racist behavior or thinking, but such a suggestion is usually promoted by people who self-identify as white or Caucasian.
“Colorblindness” is more realistically understood as an aspect of racism. The idea of “not seeing race” presumes that race is not important. The corollary to that position is that that people who insist that it is important are wrong or ignorant. In essence, the “colorblind” argument denigrates the opinions of people who do understand its importance—usually people of color, who are the most likely to be harmed by racist thoughts and actions.
Although race as a category has changed considerably over the centuries, the basic idea that people should be classified by physical features and that members of some groups consider themselves superior to others has an extremely long history. Ignoring the reality of the harm that has been done, including treating people as property and legalizing their enslavement, cannot provide the basis for improving racial relations. Pretending that something does not exist cannot lead to a solution for a serious social problem.