No, I do not believe that these are equivalent largely because becoming a surgeon does not entail making as many sacrifices as a religious vocation (particularly a Catholic one) does.
Surgeons and religious do have some similarities. Both of them tend to devote their lives to helping other people. That, however, is where the similarities end.
Members of clergy are, for the most part, not very well-paid at all. By contrast, surgeons can become quite well-off indeed. Members of the clergy are expected to be available to their flocks at all times of the day and night. Surgeons generally are not. If the clergy member is Protestant, he or she might have a family that is also expected to be part of the team. Pastors' wives are expected to be part of the ministry, largely without pay, while surgeons' spouses are not.
While both surgeons and clergy dedicate themselves to helping others, it is only the clergy who have to make significant sacrifices in order to do so.
Yes, logically speaking, the main work of the clergy as well as the medical profession is to help others but the main difference is the way they help others. But, now, in the modern world, the medical profession is, arguably, better rewarding.