Let us look at how to argue for Topalli’s point of view.
Topalli uses his research from St. Louis to argue that street criminals from very disadvantaged areas have different norms and values than people from mainstream society do. We can argue that this point of view is correct because it makes sense just from (for example) our observations of a regular sampling of high school students. Not all high school students will value obeying the rules and trying hard in school. Some will value looking cool and tough by talking back to teachers and by treating school as a joke. If students in the same school can hold such different norms and values, it is very plausible that Topalli is right and people from very different social environments can have norms and values that are radically different.