Do we have good reason to believe that any form of determinism is true? If so, how does this affect our moral lives? Could we come to know so much about the brain that we would have to conclude that we really have no choice whenever we act?  

The basic rules of Newtonian physics supply evidence that a form of determinism could be true. If people believe their lives are predetermined, it may affect whether they feel responsible for their own moral choices.

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This question is subjective. Different people are likely to give wildly different responses depending on their background, religious beliefs, and/or basic worldviews.

Determinism is a philosophical theory that says that all events are 100% determined by previously existing events and/or causes. Determinism will often include moral choices and does indicate that humans have no free will. We simply act the way we do because of events that have happened previously, and future events will happen no matter what based on current events/causes. If you take this idea far enough, a human essentially has the ability to predict the future. Complete knowledge of a situation guarantees knowledge of the future of that situation. The Persian poet Omar Khayyman described this notion in one of his poems:

And the first Morning of Creation wrote

What the Last Dawn of Reckoning shall read.

In some ways, determinism makes a lot of sense. Newtonian physics is a good example. The motion and interaction of everything is dependent on masses, distances, speeds, etc. Things are governed by physical laws; therefore, their current places in space and time determine their future places and interactions in space and time.

Regarding morality and free will, I do not personally think determinism can or should be applied. Complete determinism seems to remove any concept of moral responsibility from humanity. Determinism would say that a person can't choose to do right, wrong, good, or evil because the choice never really existed in the first place. It was already determined.

Some proponents of determinism do believe that the philosophy can affect our moral lives. Determinism says that past and present events/causes determine what will happen; therefore, with that ability to "see" the future, a moral responsibility is applied to humanity to seek out actions that will determine a "better" or "more moral" future outcome.

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