Do differences in technological innovation systems exist between industry and government?
Are there national R&D systems, or are large companies the focus of R&D systems? With industry level evidence, how does technology become commercial innovation. With a sense of comparative differences, what are the outcomes of industry and government innovation?
Technological innovation systems are comprised or many component parts. Their function is the flow of technology and information "among people, enterprises and institutions." The intended outcome of technological information systems (TIS) is an idea turned into "a successful process, product or service in the marketplace."
Component Parts of Technological Innovation Systems
Four fundamental parts of a TIS are Research and development (R&D), technological implementation of the results of R&D, end-use of the technology, and education regarding the technology and leading to linkage back into the technological innovation system.
Function of Flow within Technological Innovation Systems
The function of flow of technology and information is a result of the structure and dynamic of the TIS. It is described as composed of system-level characteristics like flow of activities with the TIS; TIS organizational boundaries; information and action coordination mechanisms; TIS effectiveness in "introducing, diffusing and exploiting technological innovations."
Outcome of Technological Innovation Systems
The outcome of a TIS is the introduction of usable products, services ideas in the marketplace. The outcome is effected by the evolution of the system and appearance of flaws within the system. The evolution of a TIS discloses flaws that hamper the outcome.
Hampered Outcome of TIS
An example of hampered outcomes and failed end-use in a TIS is the early phases of plastics recycling; some also say an example is the present phase of plastics recycling. The end product of the technological innovation permitting end-products from recycled plastics (and papers) led to products that adversely affected workers and end-users because of toxin gas-off, thus the system had flaws and a failed outcome.
Differences between Industry and Government TIS
A TIS in government [p6] focuses on social, economic and public policy questions and issues, such as social injustice, economic stability, foreign relations and education. The outcomes in a government TIS result in government policy, such as for global climate change, foreign policy, such as aid for famine stricken countries, and social policy, such free tuition for college education.
A TIS in industry most often focuses on products or services that can be manufactured or packaged for consumer markets; these generate businesses and jobs and economic expansion. The outcomes might be robotics for medical procedures, new financial packages that guarantee home mortgages or a vaccine against HIV.