A fatwa refers to an Islamic legal pronouncement, by an expert in the Islamic religion and its laws, like a Mufti. Fatwas deal with issues where it is unclear what a true follower should do and stay loyal to the mandates of the religion. These could include questions like “Can a Muslim be involved in cloning?”
Though Fatwas, due to the way they have been treated by the media and also the ignorance of people including those who follow Islam have come to mean declarations meant to entice people to kill and harm others, this is not the case.
Also a Fatwa is not binding on any follower. Any person who follows Islam is free to take his/ her own stand on the issue and act accordingly.
no. it is voluntary.
In fact it depends on who is pronouncing a fatwa.