Both Arabella and Sue, the wife and partner, respectively, of Jude, are strong female characters, unlike the stereotypical Victorian woman. Both are strong, but in different ways.
Arabella is domineering and practical and has no moral qualms about trapping Jude in a marriage. She is the kind of women who knows what she wants and how to get it, even if she is isn't able to hold onto it. She is study, robust, and strong—one is not likely to soon forget her bleeding the pig. Hers is the life of the body, of pragmatic, everyday survival. She represents animal sexuality.
Sue is also a strong woman, strong enough to stay with Jude as his unmarried partner and the mother of his children in the Victorian era, when this behavior was strongly condemned and censured. Her strength, however, is different from Arabella's animal nature. Sue is an intellectual partner to Jude, complex and ethereal. She is slim and pretty, with an abstract quality. If Jude was attracted to Arabella's sexual energy, he is soon captivated by Sue's mental power.
Both Arabella and Sue are depictions of women who fall outside of the Victorian ideal of the woman as the angel of the home. Arabella is no shrinking violet, and Sue murders her children, all of which adds to the modern feel of this novel.