What about sickle cell anemia, a genetic disorder caused by the inheritance of two mutant genes. It produces abnormal blood cells that don't transport oxygen as well as normal cells. Sickle cell anemia reduces the life span, causes pain and frequent hospital visits when the patient is in crisis. Also, the patient is tired due to less oxygen transport to the cells. It is common in people of African countries where Malaria is prevalent.
I would say that the most prominent disease involving red blood cells is anemia. Anemia is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough red blood cells. Without enough red blood cells, the body has trouble getting enough oxygen and a person ends up having fatigue, lack of energy, dizziness and other such problems.
There is also Polycythemia - which is a condition where there are too many red blood cells in the blood. Those with this condition have higher than normal amounts of hemoglobin.
Red Blood Cells production is stimulated by the Erythropoietin hormone(EPO), synthesised by the kidney and they are the most common of blood cells They transport oxygen to the tissues through blood flow.Red Blood cells are also called Erythrocytes.
There are a few diseases involving Red Blood Cells: Sickle Cell Disease, Thalassemia, Pernicious Anemia, Spherocytosis.