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This is a very broad time span. In light of this, many things can be stated. However, what is probably the most important point is the European "invasion" of Africa. In the early 1800's, there was little lasting contact between Africa and Europe. However, as the century progressed, Europe pretty much scrambled for Africa. It was the age of imperialism.
Europe, with a new sense of nationalism, wanted to promote their empires. They needed Africa for several reasons. They needed the natural resources of the Africa to make themselves rich. For example, South Africa had lots of diamonds and gold. The Congo had copper and tin. The Europeans created huge farms, plantations, and other industries to strip mine Africa. In addition, Europe wanted to sell their ware in Africa for further profits.
Moreover, there was little that the Africans could do. The superior technology of the Europeans made them unstoppable. For example, they had steam engines, machine guns, and other technologies that made the African capitulate in more ways than one.
From this point of view, Africa became more Western in many respects in their culture. They also embraced Christianity in this interchange. This has left an enduring mark. In fact, the next Archbishop of the Church of England may be from Africa! From a political point of view, Africa also became more democratic and capitalistic.
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