I assume you are talking about the entire novel and not simple the pearl itself. The novella is a cautionary allegory about the importance of working together against an evil force instead of trying to overcome that force individually. It expresses a common dream of many people, to suddenly find something that will you rich, be it a pearl, lottery ticket, inheritance or gift from a millionaire. It explores this wish and human greed in the form of a story about a young Mexican peasant who finds "the pearl of the world." The only problem is that he must first be able to sell the pearl for its real value and not be swindled by the pearl buyers and the Spanish power structure. As such, it is a valuable literary tale that is extremely accessible to all readers and contains a message and themes that many can relate to. Because of its simplicity, it is often overlooked but one close examination, it touches on a universal theme about the power of money and the need to work together to defeat an evil power structure.