This poem's most abundantly employed poetic devices are metaphor (including simile) and imagery. When the speaker lays eyes on the woman he speaks of, he sees her as many things beyond merely human, and, inspired by her presence, he even paints a picture of a landscape surrounding her.
"Black Woman" contains many instances of metaphor, starting off strong in the very second line, "Clothed with your color which is life" (line 2). This one line packs a double punch: the speaker characterizes the woman's skin color as clothing and also as life itself—quite a lofty significance for a color (or a garment). Similarly, in line 3, her form "is beauty"—her form is not simply beautiful, it is the entire concept of beauty. Later, this beauty stuns the speaker "like the flash of an eagle" (line 10). This simile, a device which can be categorized within the greater term "metaphor," turns the aforementioned beauty into an eagle. Again, with devices layered doubly, the woman's form has become beauty, which has become so striking that it "strikes" (line 9) the speaker's heart as an eagle might.
The strike of the eagle is a scene that emerges vividly in the mind's eye, which brings us to the other most prominent literary device of the poem: imagery. A following stanza brings us into "Savannah stretching to clear horizons" (line 14), expanding our mental image into a vast landscape as far as the mind's eye can see. Other sensory elements are brought in, such as taste and perhaps smell, when fruit and wine become part of the same scene (stanza 6). This deepens and sharpens the reader's imagined experience of the poem, all of which begins with the observation of a single woman, who represents to the speaker an entire homeland and even the heavens: "pearls are stars on the / night of your skin" (lines 24–25). These lines are another example of simultaneous metaphor and imagery, in which we are given a stunning visual of the night sky, whose stars also exist as jewelry on the titular woman's skin.
"Black Woman" is absolutely rife with examples of metaphor/simile and sensory imagery; these are a few key examples, but there are plenty more to be found if you look for them.