Discuss the three types of biblical interpretation covered in class. First, name and describe each of the three approaches. Second, explain which approach the Catholic Church uses. Explain why the Church uses that approach and why the church finds the other two approaches inadequate.
The three main types of Biblical Criticism are Textual, philological and literary criticisms. Two others are traditional and form criticisms.
Textual criticism develops the grounds for authority for the text. Think of the efforts put into authenticating the Dead Sea Scrolls. Philological criticism analyzes the languages of origin of the various texts to develop accurate understanding of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax, which all relate directly to content comprehension. Literary criticism approaches Biblical texts as literary texts defining and analyzing genre and devices for the purpose of determining date of authorship, author and intended function of original text. Think of the efforts made to identify when the Gospels were written and the similarities between them.
The major types of biblical criticism are: (1) textual criticism, which is concerned with establishing the original or most authoritative text, (2) philological criticism, which is the study of the biblical languages for an accurate knowledge of vocabulary, grammar, and style of the period, (3) literary criticism, which focuses on the various literary genres embedded in the text in order to uncover evidence concerning date of composition, authorship, and original function of the various types of writing (Encyclopedia Britannica)