Discuss the three organs of government.
Government takes many forms around the world, but its basic functions in every society are to determine and enforce the policies of the State. In America, as in most other countries, there is a system of government at every level of society (federal, state, and local), and each of those systems is comprised of three branches, or organs: the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judiciary branch.
For the most part, the executive branch, composed of the President, the Vice President, the Cabinet, and the armed forces, is responsible for the execution and enforcement of the laws set forth by Congress and the day-to-day administrative duties of the State, such as maintaining the country's infrastructure and collecting taxes. Although the President does have the authority to autonomously sign legislation into law through executive orders, most times, he must defer to the authority of Congress and work in conjunction with the legislative branch.
The legislative branch consists of the two arms of Congress: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Under the authority granted by the United States's Constitution, Congress alone is responsible for enacting legislation; declaring war; confirming or rejecting Presidential appointments (Cabinet members and committee heads); and overseeing the investigative agencies, such as the FBI, the CIA, and the HSA. Each arm also has individual powers. For instance, the House of Representatives, consisting of 435 elected members, has the sole power to elect the President should there be an electoral college tie. The Speaker of the House is also third in line for the office of President should something happen to both the sitting President and Vice President. The Senate, consisting of 100 elected members, 2 for each state, has the sole power to ratify treaties and conduct impeachment trials that are referred by the House.
The judiciary branch, established by Article III of our Constitution, is comprised of the Supreme Court, the United States district courts, and 13 United States courts of appeals. The Constitution grants Congress the authority to determine how many members will sit on the Supreme Court--there are currently 9--and to establish the lower district and appeals courts. Lower courts hear and try cases in courts, but only the federal judiciary branch can interpret and determine correct application of the laws passed by the legislative branch.
Just as one's internal organs must work together to keep the body functioning, the organs of government must also work together to keep our Republic functioning.
The term government has many meanings. In its most popular usage it refers to the system of managing the affairs of a large political unit such as a nation, a state, a province, a county, a city, or a village. There are many different forms of government followed in different countries. In modern times, the most popular form of governments are democratic governments that are managed by representative elected by the people.
To ensure that these representatives work effectively, and to control misuse of power and authority by them, the democratic governments are generally divided in three broad organs or branches of government. These are legislative, executive and judiciary branch.
The legislative branches makes the laws, that defines rights and obligations of the people and of various arms of government, and defines rules of conduct of various actions and functions affecting the well being of the collective good of the society.
The Executive branch is responsible for managing the affairs of the country in accordance with the laws passed by the judiciary branch, This includes among other things collecting taxes, and operation of common services in the society such as roads, water supply, policing, and defence.
The judiciary branch is responsible for interpreting the laws passed by legislative branch, and settling disputes between people and between people and government regarding correct application of law. It also awards appropriate punishment for violation of law.