Giorgio Vasari, a famous Renaissance painter and art historian from Florence, considered drawing "the father of all fine art." According to Vasari, drawing was the foundation of an artist's work because it encompassed both design and expression.
Many drawings executed during the Renaissance were preliminary sketches of other types of artistic works such as paintings, sculptures, buildings, mosaics, tapestries, and stained glass. However, artists such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci helped to transition drawing into an autonomous independent artistic activity.
Renaissance artists usually drew on canvas, tinted paper, linen, and vellum, which is the treated skin of calves, goats, or pigs. To compose, they used styluses, metalpoint, charcoal, chalk, and quill or reed pens with ink.
Some of the Renaissance artists who created famous drawings included Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael. For instance, Botticelli drew Abundance or Autumn on pink-tinted paper using pen and ink, brown wash, and black chalk. Leonardo da Vinci used pen and ink to draw Adoration of the Magi. Michelangelo used black chalk to create Ideal Head of a Woman, The Fall of Phaeton, and Portrait of Andrea Quaratesi. Raphael used metalpoint on pink-tinted paper to draw Heads of Virgin and Child.