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The notions of chance and fate are inexplicable in universe by mere humans. Thomas Hardy portrays both universal elements as mean and hateful as they throw incredible obstacles in the way of Tess's happiness in Tess of the d'Ubervilles. Chance and fate seem to tease Tess with obtaining happiness with benevolent opportunities for her to help herself and her family emerge from a lower class system in England, but something always gets in the way so that she cannot truly be happy. Here are a few examples of circumstances that Tess cannot control, thereby being under fate's will: First, she is born to parents who are unreliable and superstitious. (Her mother consults the "Fortune Teller" book to find out if Tess should marry a gentleman.) Then, as Tess is trying to do her father's job, their only horse dies and she blames herself. If the horse hadn't died, then she never would have gone to Alec d'Uberville's for help. Fate also tempts Tess as she seeks happiness with Angel Claire, but then takes it away after she tries to resolve her past before she marries him (e.g. slipping a confessional note under his bedroom door that he never gets). Ultimately, Tess is pushed over the edge of Fate's joke and kills Alec in order to be with Angel once and for all. Sadly, it never works out for her.
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